The first thing to understand is that although most people think of Cannabinoids and CBD as the same thing. This is not the case, CBD which stands for Cannabidiol is just one of over 100 different types of cannabinoids that are contained within the different cannabis plants.
A cannabinoid is a class of different chemical compounds that affect cannabinoid receptors in the body to help with a variety of health benefits to the body.
As more research is being done on the Cannabis botanical, more amazing cannabinoids, (molecules, chemical components) are being discovered. It's not just about THC or even CBD anymore. The cannabis plant contains many different cannabinoids, we have seen over 80+ different and it seems there are many more.
CBD (Cannabidiol) is the second most prominent compound in cannabis and has finally taken center stage. Most people have heard of a cannabinoid called THC, which is the ingredient in cannabis that gets users high. Unlike THC, CBD (cannabidiol) is non psychoactive cannabinoid and does not cause a high. CBD has antipsychotic effects which means CBD works completely the opposite way of THC. Numerous studies suggest that CBD also acts to reduce the intoxicating effects of THC.
About CBDa (Cannabidiolic Acid)The most common naturally occurring forms of CBD and THC are their acid forms, CBDa and THCa. Raw THCa is not psychoactive. It must be heated to form THC in order to become psychoactive. Raw cannabis is an historical component of the human diet.
THC– Tetrahydrocannabinol- is the primary psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. This is the principle cannabinoid in marijuana that causes the psychoactive feeling of being “high”.
CBD – Cannabidiol- is non-psychotropic. CBD is the most prevalent cannabinoid found in hemp. CBD has been used to treat epilepsy, and shown neuroprotective, antiepileptic, hypoxia-ischemia, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, and antitumor properties. See more benefits of CBD here
CBN– Cannabinol- is the primary product of THC degradation, and there is usually little of it in a fresh plant. CBN increases as THC degrades in storage and with exposure to light and air. Studies have suggested that CBN may be the most sedative of all of the cannabinoids representing a promising tool for the treatment of anxiety and stress related conditions. CBN may be effective at easing symptoms for patients with degenerative, motor neural diseases.
CBG– Cannabigerol- is non-psychoactive. CBG is quickly converted to other cannabinoids through natural processes that occur within the cannabis plant, in general, most mature cannabis plants contain less than 1% CBG.
CBC– Cannabichromene- is non-psychoactive and does not affect the psychoactivity of THC. CBC is the second most prevalent cannabinoid found in hemp.
CBL– Cannabicyclol- CBL is known to occur as a degradation product of CBC.
CBE– Cannabielsoin- CBE forms from CBD during the metabolic process, so it is a metabolite.
Terpenes or isoprenoids, provide cannabis with its unique bouquet. The molecules are quite small and consist of repeating units of a compound called isoprene. Although less well-known than the major cannabinoids, terpenes play a vital role in the plant kingdom; they deter insect predation, protect plants from environmental stresses, and act as building blocks for more complex molecules, such as cannabinoids. Many terpenes act synergistically with other varieties of terpenes, and some either catalyze or inhibit formation of different compounds within a plant. Below are some of the major ones:
Different Types Of Terpenes
Pinene– accounts for cannabis’ familiar odor, often associated with pine trees and turpentine. Pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenoid and acts as both an anti-inflammatory and a bronchodilator.
Linalool– has a floral scent reminiscent of spring flowers, but with spicy overtones. It possesses sedative properties and is an effective anxiety and stress reliever. It has also been used an analgesic and anti-epileptic.
Limonene- is a dominant terpene in strains with a pronounced Sativa effect. It is also found in the rinds of citrus fruits. Limonene aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes, and has been used to treat anxiety and depression.
Myrcene– is the most prevalent terpene and is found in most varieties of cannabis. Myrcene concentration dictates whether a strain will have an Indica or Sativa effect. Strains containing over 0.5% of myrcene produce a more sedative high, while strains containing less than 0.5% myrcene have an energizing effect. Myrcene is also present in thyme, hops, lemongrass, and citrus, and is used in aromatherapy.
Ocimene– is frequently used in perfumes for its pleasant odor. In nature, this terpene contributes to a plant’s defenses and possess antifungal properties.
Terpinolene– has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects in rat brain cells. Studies with mice show that terpinolene has a sedative effect when inhaled. In addition, terpinolene is responsible for many of the floral notes found in Jack Herer varieties.
Terpineol– is known for its pleasant smell and is often used in soaps and perfumes. It is known to have relaxing effects.
Valencene– is present in Valencia oranges and contributes to cannabis’ citrus aroma.
Caryophyllene– is the only terpene known to interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (CB2). It produces anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
Geraniol– Also present in geraniums, geraniol emits a rosey scent that makes it a popular perfume additive. It is an effective mosquito repellent and shows a potential protective effect against neuropathy.
Humulene– contributes to the “hoppy” aroma of cannabis. This terpene acts as an appetite suppressant and exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity.
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