Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in our human body. It is an important mineral to improve and to maintain our health. Magnesium is otherwise known for its rejuvenating effect on our body. In general magnesium helps with arthritis, body odors, broken bones, calcification in any organ, chronic fatigue syndrome, eclampsia (gestational hypertension), headache, infection and inflammation, liver cirrhosis, lupus (skin disease mainly in the face), migraine, prostate problems, wrinkled and tough skin, stone formation in kidneys and gall bladder or overactive thyroid. Tired nerves, tics and twitches, tremors, irritability, hypersensitivity, muscle cramps, restlessness, anxiety, confusion, disorientation and irregular heartbeat, are all general symptoms of magnesium deficiency.Other symptoms of low magnesium include:
One type of magnesium is magnesium chloride, which has a healing effect on a wide range of diseases. Magnesium Chloride (MC) is a pure, 100% natural, high quality magnesium salt derived from the depths of the earth’s interior – all from the ancient Zechstein Seabed in Europe. Ultra-pure and untouched by pollutants, this magnesium salt was protected at depths of 5,000-6,500 feet in this seabed for the past 250 million years. Due to it's water solubility, magnesium chloride is probably the most bioavailable form of magnesium. Some people (and practitioners) claim that magnesium is absorbed best transdermally (through the skin) since it bypasses the digestive tract and doesn’t cause as much of a laxative effect.
1. Helps you to absorb nutrients. Magnesium chloride also causes the growth of friendly bacteria in the intestines, making nutrients absorption possible and easier. It supports the healing of wounds. MC also reduces the absorption of cholesterol, removes the excess sodium and calcium and helps potassium to enter in the cells.
2. Magnesium is effective against: acne, eczema, psoriasis, warts, itching, impotence, asthma, hay fever. Hair and nails become stronger and healthier. The mineral is also effective in acute attacks of asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and emphysema lung disease, sore throat, tonsillitis, hoarseness, colds, flu, whooping cough, poisoning, gastroenteritis, boils, abscesses, whitlow, infected wounds and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone marrow) shock, herpes zoster, acute and chronic connective tissue inflammation, rheumatic diseases, and many allergic diseases.
3. Magnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system. Therefore it is often used to stimulate good sleep. But more importantly, it can be used to calm irritated and excited nerves. If magnesium levels are low, the nerves lose control over muscle activity, respiration and mental processes.
4. Magnesium in general manages one's energy. Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be overcome with a high doses of magnesium, shaking and rigidity can be prevented. Because of its strong relaxing effect, magnesium helps not only for a better sleep but also helps well against headaches and migraines. Studies of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome showed that additional supplementation of magnesium resulted in a better energy level.
5. Essential for the heart muscle. Sufficient amount of magnesium is essential for the heart muscle. People who die of a heart attack, have very low magnesium, but high levels of calcium in the heart muscle. People with coronary arteries problems where treated with large amounts of magnesium, which resulted in a better survival rate than those who were treated with medication. Magnesium dilates the arteries of the heart and reduces cholesterol and fat level. A high calcium level, on the other hand, narrows the coronary arteries and increases the risk of heart attacks.
6. Prevents tooth decay and improves healthy teeth. A study in New Zealand found that healthy teeth without any tooth decay on average consists two times more magnesium than teeth that were susceptible to tooth decay. As for the strength of bones and teeth, you should think of calcium as chalk and magnesium as superglue. The magnesium superglue binds chalk and converts it into superior bones and teeth. Magnesium chloride is extremely good for gums and teeth. It works against inflammation and causes strong teeth.
7. Transdermal easily absorbed through the skin. Using other magnesium salts have fewer benefits because they have to be converted in the body into chlorides. We can use magnesium oxide or carbonate, but we have to produce additional hydrochloric acid to absorb it. Many elderly people, especially with chronic diseases who desperately need more magnesium, can’t produce enough hydrochloric acid and can’t absorb the oxide or carbonate. Chelated magnesium is absorbed, but is more expensive and does not have the beneficial effect of the chloride ions.
8. Against aging and has a rejuvenating effect on our body. Generally, the softer our body structure, the more calcium we need. If the body structure is more rigid and inflexible, the less calcium and more magnesium it needs. Magnesium can prevent age-related degenerative calcification of our body structure and thus help us to rejuvenate. Young women, children and especially babies have soft body structures and smooth skin with low calcium and high magnesium levels in their cells and soft tissues. This is the biochemistry of youth. As we get older, arteries harden which causes arteriosclerosis. The skeleton is calcified and rigid. The spinal, joints, kidneys, other organs and glands calcify and harden with more stone formation. Calcification in the eyes causes cataracts. Even the skin becomes tough and wrinkled. In this case, calcium is of the same level as the oxygen and free radicals, whilst magnesium together with hydrogen, and anti-oxidants co-operates in order to keep our body structure, soft and flexible.
9. Helps to restore a healthy intestinal flora. Increased magnesium intake is an effective way to dissolve kidney stones and gall bladder stones. The activation of digestive enzymes and bile also helps to restore a healthy intestinal flora. Magnesium chloride is so beneficial in normalizing our digestion as to reduce gas and flatulence attacks. This is consistent with the reduction of all body odors, including underarm and foot odor.
Magnesium chloride is helpful against a large number of diseases, including diseases of the digestive tract such as colitis, a disorder of muscle movements, especially in the colon, complaints occur about abdominal cramps and bowel function can be compromised. This results in an abnormal stool. Colic, constipation, chronic diarrhea, malabsorption, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).
10. Repairs muscles. Magnesium has been used for a long period of time by athletes to relieve pain associated with muscle soreness and inflammation. It is involved in many processes that affect muscle performance, such as oxygen saturation and the production of energy. Extra magnesium aids muscle recovery after exertion. Sufficient extra magnesium provided by constant and regular supplementation will help athletes avoid muscle and joint injuries. Magnesium will also support the body during recovery from injuries, so muscles and joints take less time to recover.
Our immune system acts as a guardian for our body, protecting it from damaging forces from the environment and is critical for our survival. This system of defense is comprised of various organs, cells and proteins. Next to the nervous system, the immune structure is the most complex system within our body.
When our immune system is running properly, we do not notice it, even though it is working around the clock to keep us at optimal health. However, when our immune system is compromised, it cannot protect the body at the same high level from invading organisms, and this puts us at risk from infectious illnesses, debilitating diseases and even increase your risk of death1.
Luckily, there are signs to look for that may tip us off to a weakened immune system. Take a moment to see if you have any of these signs and what you can do to better support your immune function.
1) YOU’RE CONTINUOUSLY STRESSED Stress was designed to be a fight or flight response to our ancestors’ environment. If a tiger approached, our ancestor’s body would release a complex mix of hormones and chemicals like adrenaline, cortisol and norepinephrine to prep our body for physical action. This caused certain reactions, including more blood flow to the muscles and the shutting down of other functions like the digestive system.
Even in our modern life, these reactions are necessary, such as when we must slam on the brakes to avoid an accident. Too often we stress out over things that aren’t life or death situations, and this continuous type of stress can take its toll on our immune system. When stress hormones are constantly being released into the body, they interfere with the immune system’s natural functions, resulting in inflammation, a reduction of white blood cells and a higher susceptibility to infection and tissue destruction2.
2) YOU TIRE EASILY We all burn the candle at both ends sometimes, but when you continuously wake up feeling exhausted, it could mean your immune system needs extra support3. When your immune system is not running efficiently, your body can wear out faster as it’s fighting off harmful bacteria and parasites, leaving you fatigued throughout the day.
3) YOU ALWAYS HAVE A COLD Catching a cold once in awhile is part of life for many of us, but when those colds linger on, followed up by another cold and then another… your immune system is literally screaming for extra help. Think of your immune system as a fortress, keeping invading armies out. However when the fortress gate is compromised, it’s almost impossible to keep anything out. It’s the same way with cold and flu bugs. They are always looking for a way in.
If you are sick all the time, be sure to let your doctor know. Frequent colds could be a part of a larger underlying concern.
4) YOU’RE OVERWEIGHT We all know the health dangers associated with being overweight, but those extra pounds may be a sign that you have a weakened immune system. According to a JAMA report in February, 2014, one-third of Americans are classified as obese, meaning that many of us who think we have strong immune systems might want to rethink things.
When we become obese our body adds more adipose tissue. More cytokines are then released by your fat cells, which produces low-grade, chronic inflammation. Inflammation is your immune system’s response to harmful things in your body, but when your body is constantly inflamed; your immune system becomes overworked and impairs its ability to fight infection4.
5) YOU’RE NOT GETTING ENOUGH SUNLIGHTUnless you’re a vampire, it’s advisable to get at least 10 – 15 minutes of sun exposure per day. If you’re a night owl, work in an office, or keep the drapes drawn all day, you might be compromising your immune system. Sunlight allows our body to produce vitamin D, which is essential for our well being, but there is another benefit from catching some rays. Researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center have found that sunlight also energizes T cells, which play an active role in our immune response.
So get outdoors for a few minutes every day and do your immune system a favor. Of course, always use precaution when going outdoors and avoid prolonged sun exposure.
6) YOUR WOUNDS ARE SLOW TO HEAL If you notice that wounds on your skin are taking longer than usual to heal, it may be that a sluggish immune system is to blame. A healthy immune system helps improve your skin’s ability to heal by fighting harmful bacteria and reducing the risk of infection, but when your immune system is weakened, healing may take far longer because it can’t fight the infection like it should5.
If you do notice a minor cut, scrape, insect bite or other skin infection, consider using any of our hemp derived cbd topical products which will help reduce topical pain, calm skin inflammation and promote the healing of the skin.
7) YOU OFTEN HAVE TUMMY TROUBLES Your intestinal tract, known as your gut, has bacteria essential to the wellbeing of your body. When this bacteria is balanced, your immune system is also balanced. When your gut’s bacteria is out of harmony, your immune system suffers. Diarrhea, nausea and stomach infections are all signs that your immune system may be impaired6. It’s always good to consult with your doctor to see if you have other symptoms that might suggest indications of other medical factors. To support a healthy digestive function consider a more holistic approach to balancing your gut with a safe and natural hemp derived CBD from CBDNutritional.com.
If you have any of these seven signs it could indicate that you have a weakened immune system. The good news is there are plenty of natural ways to support your immune system* and take back control of your well-being without resorting to harsh pharmaceutical or over-the-counter drugs that might cause a host of other health issues. CBD as an adaptogen herb works to balance our immune function. If you are feeling your immune system is impaired, consider a CBD Immune boost today. Blessings
*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
REFERENCES:1. Torrey, Trisha, verywellhealth.com
2. Hansen, Fawne, The Adrenal Fatigue Solution
3. Mann, Denise, WebMD
4. NCBI, Adipose Tissue Immune Response: Novel Triggers and Consequences for Chronic Inflammatory Conditions
5. Advanced Tissue, The Immune System and Wound Healing
6. Greene, Lily., Balance Me Beautiful
The CBD Isolate crystals are derived from the cannabis subspecies L, aka industrial hemp, plant through a variety of processes that allow it to be extracted and then isolated. It begins with an organically grown industrial hemp cannabis plant. Always remember, it’s not the kind of cannabis that will make you high. Industrial grade hemp is the raw material for the CBD isolate. It’s grown in order to yield the maximum biomass. The hemp will be used for the process and it’s very different from the cannabis that a person would use to get high. Hemp has trace levels of THC however, it’s an abundant source of the CBD.
Creating the CBD isolate is a multi-faceted process. The beginning step will involve the use of CO2 to extract the resins and the oils from the cannabis plant. Regarded as safe through the FDA, it will give a higher concentrate that will have fatty acids as well as cannabinoids and other plant materials that are all naturally found in the hemp plant.
Next, the material that was extracted must be purified and winterized. This is where the CBD hemp oil will be purified by using a proprietary process that will filter out the excess plant material. This will filter out the extra waxes and it will also separate the lipids during the winterization process. Then, the extra plant material that is remaining will be removed from the material. At this point, it’s a 99 percent pure CBD isolate. The final steps for the product ensure that all of the chlorophyll and waxes are all removed. This will leave the net result of the pure CBD that can then be ingested or used as discussed below.
To ensure that the CBD isolate is both pure and reliable, you’ll want to ensure that it’s been taken through every lab testing process. These lab tests will ensure that there is an accurate concentration of the cannabinoids for the final product. Always check for toxins, heavy metals, mildew, any fungi or molds and any residual solvents after the purification and production process.
Cannabis is rich in cannabinoids. There are over 85 identified different cannabinoids today including: THC, THCA, THCV, CBD, CBDA, CBN, CBT, CBC & CBG to mention a few. There are two basic species or types of cannabis: Indica and Sativa, and over 1,000 different strains within these two species. The healing properties of the cannabis strain lie in the relative ratios and combinations of the cannabinoids.
Indica originated in the Hindu Kush mountains in India and Nepal. Indica has a higher CBD:THC ratio. It produces heavier, body oriented, sleepy or relaxing type of effect. The medicinal qualities include pain management, nausea, muscle spasms, stress and anxiety. Indica strains are a relaxant, effective for appetite stimulation, sleep, muscle spasms and tremors, among other symptoms. It is good as an evening medicine.
Sativa originated in Central and South America. Sativa usually has a lower CBD:THC ratio, producing a cerebral, uplifting type of feeling, more energetic and creative. Often, the THC content is higher in the sativa strains than the Indica strains. The Sativa strains are stimulating, effective in appetite stimulation, relieving depression, migraines, pain and nausea. Best taken in the morning or afternoon.
Hybrids are a combination of sativa and indica strains that have been cross bred with each other to produce a combination of medicinal properties.
CBD - Cannabidiol is one of the 85+ cannabinoids and it has most of the healing properties. The CBD Rich strain is usually a hybrid of indica and sativa. Each CBD rich strain will display indica or sativa qualities of energizing or relaxing, the same as the non CBD rich strain. The main difference is the reduced psychoactive effect of the THC and the increased healing value.
Sleep disturbances are the most common health problem in America. Those with sleep issues are poorly served by prescription and over-the-counter sleeping pills and other pharmaceuticals, which have serious risks.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institute of Health (NIH), new findings suggest “sleep plays a housekeeping role that removes toxins in your brain that build up while you are awake.”
Poor sleep is the number one reported medical complaint in the Unites States and a serious public health concern. The average adult needs between seven and eight hours of sleep per day. Yet, 10-30 million Americans regularly don’t get enough sleep.
Over 60 percent of American adults report having problems sleeping several nights per week.
Over 40 million Americans suffer from more than 70 different sleep disorders. The most common sleep-related ailments include:
Those with chronic illnesses are at greater risk for insomnia, which exacerbates their discomfort. Comorbid medical disorders – including conditions that cause hypoxemia (abnormally low blood oxygen levels) and dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing), gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, and neurodegenerative diseases – have a 75-95 percent increased risk of insomnia.
Pills that kill
In 2016, according to the industry research firm MarketsandMarkets, Americans spent $3.38 billion on prescription sedatives and hypnotics, over-the-counter (OTC) sleep drugs, and herbal sleep aids. It’s projected that the market for such products will experience about a 4.5 percent growth rate between now and 2021.
The quest for good night’s sleep can be hazardous to one’s health. Daniel F. Kripke, MD, sleep expert and co-founder of Research at Scripps Clinic Vitebri Family Sleep Center, discusses the dangers of sleep aids in his paper “Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.”
Dr. Kripke reviewed 40 studies conducted on prescription sleeping pills, which include hypnotic drugs such as zolpidem (Ambien, Edlmar, Intermezzo and Zolpimist), temazepam (Restoril), eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), triazolam (Halcion), flurazepam (Dalmane and Dalmadorm), quazepam, and other barbiturates used for sleep. Of these 40 studies, thirty-nine found that consumption of hypnotics is “associated with excess mortality” to the tune of a 4.6 times greater risk of death for hypnotic users.
Grim statistics: 10,000 deaths per year are directly caused by and attributed to hypnotic drugs, based on medical examiner data. However, large epidemiological studies suggest the number of fatalities may actually be closer to 300,000-500,000 per year. The difference can be attributed to underreported use of hypnotics at the time of death and the fact that prescription hypnotics are rarely listed as the cause of death.
Dr. Kripke concludes that even limited use of sleeping pills causes “next day functional impairment,” increases risk of “on-the-road driver-at-fault crashes,” increases falls and accidental injuries especially among seniors, is associated with “2.1 times” as many new depression incidents compared to randomized placebo recipients, and increases the risk of suicide. Furthermore, the use of opioids combined with hypnotics – two known dose-dependent respiratory suppressants – can be extremely dangerous, especially when mixed with alcohol and other drugs.1
Another concern: Data from controlled hypnotics trials resulted in 12 cancers in hypnotic participants compared to zero cancers in the placebo group. (When the FDA conducted the same audit, they found 13 cancers.) But it is unclear if the hypnotics were a causative factor in these cancers or if they were promoting progression of cancer that had previously gone undetected. Animal and in vitro (test tube/petri dish) studies also attest to the pro-cancer potential of hypnotics. To learn more visit Dr. Kripke’s website.
In addition to these risks, meta-data (combined data) from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials showed participants in the hypnotic groups had a 44 percent higher infection rate than the placebo participants.
Are over-the-counter sleep aids any better? These also have adverse side effects. Most OTC sleeping pills (Benadryl and others) have the antihistamine diphenhydramine as the primary ingredient. It can knock you out, but it’s unlikely to provide truly restful sleep.
Dr. Kripke writes: “Usage of diphenhydramine is associated with developing Alzheimer’s disease, though which is cause and which is effect is certainly unclear. One well-known aspect of diphenhydramine is that it is anticholinergic [blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine], that produces some heart symptoms sometimes as well as digestive symptoms such as constipation. In some patients, also, diphenhydramine at night causes rather a lot of daytime sleepiness.”
A large number of OTC sleep aids also include acetaminophen, a pain reliever that has a narrow therapeutic window – meaning at one dose it’s therapeutic, but the slightest increase can be toxic to the liver. All too often consumers don’t read the warning labels about these drugs and consume them with alcohol and other meds. This can cause liver toxicity and/or fatal respiratory suppression.
OTC sleep aids are intended only for occasional or short-term use – never more than two weeks at one time. Although it is not typically reported in the published literature, those who use OTC and prescription sleep aids find that once they start it’s hard to stop.
The endocannabinoid system and sleep
Given the problems with conventional soporifics, medical scientists have been exploring other ways to improve sleep by targeting the endocannabinoid system (ECS). As the primary homeostatic regulator of human physiology, the ECS plays a major role in the sleep-wake cycle and other circadian processes.
Italian scientist Vicenzo DiMarzo summarized the broad regulatory function of the endocannabinoid system in the phrase “Eat, sleep, relax, protect and forget.”
Stages of Sleep
There are two types of sleep: non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), which has three stages, and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is its own stage of sleep. A full sleep cycle occurs five to six times per night. The first full cycle of the night is 70-100 minutes with remaining cycles lasting 90-120 minutes each. The stages of sleep defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke are as follows:
It’s as if we have an internal biochemical timer or clock that keeps track of our need for sleep, guides the body to sleep and then influences the intensity of sleep. This biological mechanism is affected by external forces such as travel, medication, food, drink, environment, stress and more.
Key question: Does the endocannabinoid system regulate our experience of circadian rhythms or vice versa?
Evidence of a strong relationship between the two is observed in the sleep-wake cycle fluctuations of anandamide and 2-AG (the brain’s own marijuana-like molecules), along with the metabolic enzymes that create and break down these endogenous cannabinoid compounds.
Anandamide is present in the brain at higher levels at night and it works with the endogenous neurotransmitters oleamide and adenosine to generate sleep. Conversely, 2AG is higher during the day, suggesting that it is involved in promoting wakefulness.
The highly complex sleep-wake cycle is driven by a variety of neurochemicals and molecular pathways.2Both anandamide and 2AG activate CB1 cannabinoid receptors that are concentrated in the central nervous system, including parts of the brain associated with regulating sleep.
CB1 receptors modulate neurotransmitter release in a manner that dials back excessive neuronal activity, thereby reducing anxiety, pain, and inflammation. CB1 receptor expression is thus a key factor in modulating sleep homeostasis.
This is not the case, however, with respect to the CB2, the cannabinoid receptor located primarily in immune cells, the peripheral nervous system, and metabolic tissue. Whereas CB1 receptor expression reflects cyclical circadian rhythms, no such fluctuations have been described for the CB2 receptor.
The challenge of studying and treating sleep disturbances is complicated by the fact that sleep disorders are symptomatic of many chronic illnesses. In many cases, poor sleep results in chronic illness, and chronic illness always involves an underlying imbalance or dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. Although we still have much to learn about the relationship between the ECS and circadian rhythms, it’s clear that adequate quality sleep is a critical component of restoring and maintaining one’s health.
Cannabinoids have been used for centuries to promote sleepiness and to help people stay asleep. In the acclaimed medical reference Materia Medica, published in the 18th century, cannabis was listed as a ‘narcotica’ and ‘anodyna’ (pain reliever). Its reintroduction to Western medicine by Sir William B. O’Shaughnessy in 1843 led to studies that underscored the remedial properties of “Indian hemp” for sleep disorders.
“Of all anaesthetics ever proposed, Indian hemp is the one which produced a narcotism most closely resembling the natural sleep without causing any extraordinary excitement of the vessels, or any particular suspension of secretions, or without fear of a dangerous reaction, and consecutive paralysis,” German researcher Bernard Fronmueller observed in 1860.
Nine years later Fronmueller reported that in 1000 patients with sleep disturbance, Indian hemp produced cures in 53 percent, partial cure in 21.5 percent, and little or no effects in 25.5 percent.
Sleep-related problems continue to drive a large percentage of people to seek relief with cannabis. Poor sleep and lack of sleep cause physiological changes in the body after just one night, resulting in slower reaction times, deceased cognitive performance, less energy, aggravated pain and inflammation, and in many cases overeating or cravings for high-fat, high-carbohydrate “comfort” foods.
A 2014 study by Babson et al notes that approximately 50 percent of long-term cannabis consumers (over 10 years) report using cannabis as a sleep aid. Among medical marijuana patients, 48 percent report using cannabis to help with insomnia.
Another study revealed that 40 percent of insomniacs also suffer from anxiety and depression or another a psychiatric disorder. (Roth, 2007) Would it surprise you to learn that people with mood disorders who use cannabis have the highest rates of sleep benefit at 93 percent? (Babson & Bonn-Miller, 2014)
“Sorrow can be alleviated by good sleep.” So said Thomas Aquinas.
CBD, THC, CBNWhat about specific plant cannabinoids for sleep?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is alerting or mildly stimulating in moderate doses, while its psychoactive counterpart delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) tends to be sedating. However, the science is somewhat paradoxical.
Research data and anecdotal accounts indicate that CBD and THC have differential effects on sleep – both can be alerting or sedating depending on dosage.
The biphasic dose response triggered by CBD and THC is one of the factors that may contribute to conflicting research results with respect to cannabinoids and sleep.3
The association between low-dose cannabidiol and increased wakefulness underscores CBD’s potential as a treatment for narcolepsy and other variants of excessive daytime sleepiness.
Curiously, CBD can help people fall asleep as well as stay awake. An insomnia study indicated that the administration of 160 mgs of CBD decreased nighttime sleep interruptions and increased total sleep time, suggesting that high-dose CBD therapy can improve the quality and duration of sleep.
In addition to showing promise as a safe and effective alternative to conventional psychiatric treatments for insomnia, cannabidiol can reduce symptoms of REM behavior disorder (RBD), which is characterized by the acting out of vivid, intense, and sometimes violent dreams. A preliminary study examined the efficacy of CBD in patients with both Parkinson’s disease and RBD and the results were encouraging.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent form of sleep disorder breathing that affects nine percent of American adults. Research involving animal models of this condition has shown that THC and the endogenous cannabinoid oleamide are effective in reducing sleep apnea events. (Babson 2017) Human studies indicate that dronabinol, a FDA-approved synthetic version of THC, reduces sleep apnea and is safe and well tolerated.
Additionally, cannabinol (CBN), most commonly associated with aged cannabis, is said to potentiate the sedative properties of THC when these two cannabinoids are used together, although this notion may be more modern-day marijuana folklore than scientific fact.
Pain and sleepBesides the desire for good sleep, treating pain is another common reason for using cannabis. Chronic pain is a major public health issue that directly affects around 20 percent of U.S. adults, many of whom also suffer from diminished sleep. Sometimes it’s hard to know if the pain is causing sleeplessness or if sleeplessness is triggering the pain.
Patients seeking both pain relief and better sleep may achieve positive results with cannabinoids and other cannabis components.4 In their paper “Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex®, a Cannabis-Based Medicine,” Russo et al summarized 13 studies that examined varying cannabis preparations for pain and sleep.
Of particular interest is a Phase II study, involving 24 patients with intractable multiple sclerosis, which compared three different preparations: Tetranabinex (a high THC product); Nabindolex (high CBD); and Sativex® (an almost a 1:1 THC:CBD sublingual remedy).
Different cannabinoid ratios helped in various ways: “Compared to placebo, the CBD-predominant extract significantly improved pain, the THC-predominant extract yielded significant improvement in pain, muscle spasm, spasticity and appetite, and combined THC:CBD extracts (Sativex®) significantly improved muscle spasm and sleep.”
The authors concluded that a combination of CBD and THC (15 mg of each) “improved sleep synergistically.” Of the thirteen studies profiled in this paper, seven showed improvements in sleep. Six of the seven were conducted with Sativex®, the 1:1 CBD:THC sublingual spray, indicating that balanced a cannabinoid profile facilitates sleep improvements among patients with chronic pain.5
The use of cannabis is prevalent among those who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A small open trial conducted in Israel showed that 5 mg of smoked THC twice a day resulted in improved sleep and reduced frequency of nightmares in patients with PTSD. (Mechoulam, 2015) This directly correlates with similar test results involving nabilone, a synthetic THC-like drug.
Memory processing occurs when we are asleep, so it stands to reason that someone suffering from PTSD – especially those who experience nightmares – would benefit by using cannabis or cannabinoids to sleep better.
At first glance, it may appear that cannabis is merely a coping mechanism for PTSD patients; it is sometimes negatively characterized this way in the medical literature. Thus far, the majority of studies involving cannabinoids and PTSD have been conducted from an addiction perspective – will cannabis harm PTSDpatients and turn them into addicts? – but that may be changing.
Increasingly researchers are recognizing the limitations of the addiction framework, which overlooks the crucial role that the endocannabinoid system plays in helping us forget painful memories, a normal process that is somehow dysregulated when one experiences PTSD.
In some cases, THC and other plant cannabinoids can provide enough relief so that PTSD sufferers are able to embark upon the task of making sense of their traumatic memories and begin the healing process. None of that can happen without quality sleep.
“If you can’t sleep your world goes to hell in a hand basket real fast,” said Al Byrne, a U.S. Navy veteran and medical marijuana advocate.
Many military veterans and victims of sexual abuse are using cannabis to treat their PTSD-related symptoms. A 2016 case study provided clinical data that validated the use of CBD-rich oil as a safe and effective treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with PTSD.
Pharmaceuticals provided minimal relief for a 10-year-old girl who had been sexually abused as a young child. And her meds caused major adverse side effects. But a CBD-rich oil regimen resulted in “a maintained decrease in anxiety and a steady improvement in the quality and quantity of the patient’s sleep.”
This is not an isolated example. CBD-rich oil, an increasingly popular treatment for anxiety and sleep problems, has emerged in recent years as a viable alternative to Big Pharma drugs.
Cannabis therapeutics is personalized medicine – and this is certainly true with respect to using the herb and its components to treat sleep disorders. The effectiveness of cannabis as a sleep aid is highly variable, depending on the individual user, how the remedy is administered, its cannabinoid ratio and aromatic terpene profile, the timing and dosage – all these factors come into play and influence different outcomes.
Success may rest upon how well one manages the psychoactive qualities of cannabis. As with any medicine, there are some risks involved when consuming cannabis to sleep better. Short-term use of cannabis may decrease sleep onset latency (how long it takes to fall asleep). But this improvement may weaken over time. Tolerance develops with chronic consumption, which can impair long term sleep quality. Too much of a good thing can be problematic for frequent recreational cannabis users, who may begin to experience a reduction in slow-wave deep sleep, leaving the individual feeling like they are not well rested. Could this be because recreational users tend to prefer large amounts of THC-dominant cannabis varieties?
Sleep disturbance, ironically, is perhaps the most notable withdrawal symptom when a heavy user stops smoking marijuana. Compared to kicking addictive pharmaceuticals, cannabis withdrawal is a minor discomfort with symptoms typically lasting for a few days (sometimes a few weeks) after cessation. And cannabis, unlike prescription and over-the-counter sleep aids, has never killed anyone.
Medical cannabis users often experience better outcomes with lower doses, especially when they are treating something in addition to sleep disturbances, such as pain, spasticity, or post traumatic stress disorder. Based on the available literature reviewed by Project CBD, it appears that a 1:1 CBD:THC preparation will most likely confer restorative sleep. Cannabis-naïve patients may find relief with as little as 2.5 mg of THC and 2.5mg CBD. A somewhat higher dose – 5 to 15 mg each of THC and CBD – may work wonders for experienced cannabis users.
The combination of odiferous terpenes present in a given cannabis strain or product can also significantly impact sleep. Individual terpenes have sedating or stimulating effects, thus affecting the sleep-wake cycle. Terpenes can be therapeutic in their own right. As important modulators of cannabinoids, terpenes contribute significantly to how a given cannabis strain or cultivar makes one feel.
Sedating terpenes include terpinolene, nerolidol, phytol, linalool, and myrcene. In addition to causing the infamous “couch-lock” effect at high levels (+0.5%), myrcene can be mildly stimulating at lower levels. Those trying to address pain and sleep issues should consider cannabis remedies that include beta-caryophyllene, as this terpene is also a strong anti-inflammatory and pain-reliever.
In a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 percent of respondents indicated that they used complementary, non-pharmaceutical therapies for fatigue and 26.4 percent for sleep deprivation.
Here are a few simple lifestyle modifications and holistic healing options that may improve your sleep quality.
2 Highly complex, the sleep-wake cycle is driven by various neurochemicals and brain pathways. Neuroscientist and sleep researcher Dr. Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, says that “Sleep is generated by sleep-promoting neurons placed in the anterior hypothalamus that utilize GABA to inhibit wake-promoting regions in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Then, the brainstem regions inhibited during wake and slow wave sleep become active during rapid eye movement sleep (REM).”
3 In “The effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep: a systematic review of human studies,” Gates et al scrutinized cannabis-related sleep studies prior to 2012. But they found “little consistency in the results [of] six studies with objective sleep measures. Slow wave sleep was described as increasing for a week in one study, whereas three studies reported a decrease in slow wave sleep, and one study showed no change. Rapid eye movement sleep was reported to increase in one study, decrease in a second study, while four studies showed no effect. Stage two sleep [see sidebar] was reported to increase in two studies, while four studies showed no effect. Sleep latency was reported to increase in one study, decrease on a high THC dose in a second study, while two studies showed no effect and two studies did not measure sleep latency.”
4A 2014 article by Babson & Bonn-Miller indicated that over 83 percent of surveyed patients taking cannabis for pain said they experienced improved sleep.
5Nicholson et al had similar results in a double-blind placebo-controlled with a 4-way crossover design study evaluating the effect of cannabis extracts on nocturnal sleep, early-morning performance, memory, and sleepiness in eight subjects ages 21-34 years old. A cross-over design is one where each group of participants take two or more interventions; in this case four different preparations were tested, including THC (15 mg) alone; THC and CBD together (5 mg each and 15 mg each); and a placebo. They scientists found that “although impaired memory was observed the next day when 15 mg THC was given alone overnight, there were no effects on memory when 15 mg THC was ingested with 15 mg CBD.” They also found that the effects of THC and CBD appeared to be dose dependent as evidenced by the fact that 7.5 mg of THC did not impair memory, but 15 mg did.